Code Listings

Chapter 13: Code Contracts and Diagnostics

Conditional compilation

#define TESTMODE            // #define directives must be at top of file
                            // Symbol names are uppercase by convention.
using System;

class Program
{
  static void Main()
  {
#if TESTMODE
    Console.WriteLine ("in test mode!");     // OUTPUT: in test mode!
#endif
  }
}

Conditional attribute

[Conditional ("LOGGINGMODE")]
static void LogStatus (string msg)
{
  ...
}

Alternatives to conditional attribute

using System;
using System.Linq;

class Program
{
  public static bool EnableLogging;

  static void LogStatus (Func<string> message)
  {
    string logFilePath = ...
    if (EnableLogging)
      System.IO.File.AppendAllText (logFilePath, message() + "\r\n");
  }
}

TraceListener

// Clear the default listener:
Trace.Listeners.Clear();

// Add a writer that appends to the trace.txt file:
Trace.Listeners.Add (new TextWriterTraceListener ("trace.txt"));

// Obtain the Console's output stream, then add that as a listener:
System.IO.TextWriter tw = Console.Out;
Trace.Listeners.Add (new TextWriterTraceListener (tw));

// Set up a Windows Event log source and then create/add listener.
// CreateEventSource requires administrative elevation, so this would
// typically be done in application setup.
if (!EventLog.SourceExists ("DemoApp"))
  EventLog.CreateEventSource ("DemoApp", "Application");

Trace.Listeners.Add (new EventLogTraceListener ("DemoApp"));

Code Contracts - why use code contracts?

public static bool AddIfNotPresent<T> (IList<T> list, T item)
{
  Contract.Requires (list != null);          // Precondition
  Contract.Requires (!list.IsReadOnly);      // Precondition
  Contract.Ensures (list.Contains (item));   // Postcondition
  if (list.Contains(item)) return false;
  list.Add (item);
  return true;
}

Contract.Requires<TException>

static void SetProgress (string message, int percent)  // Classic approach
{
  if (message == null)
    throw new ArgumentNullException ("message");

  if (percent < 0 || percent > 100)
    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException ("percent");
  ...
}
static void SetProgress (string message, int percent)  // Modern approach
{
  Contract.Requires (message != null);
  Contract.Requires (percent >= 0 && percent <= 100);
  ...
}

Contract.EndContractBlock

static void Foo (string name)
{
  if (name == null) throw new ArgumentNullException ("name");
  Contract.EndContractBlock();
  ...
}

Postconditions - Contract.Ensures

static bool AddIfNotPresent<T> (IList<T> list, T item)
{
  Contract.Requires (list != null);          // Precondition
  Contract.Ensures (list.Contains (item));   // Postcondition
  if (list.Contains(item)) return false;
  list.Add (item);
  return true;
}

Postconditions and Thread Safety

public class ThreadSafeList<T>
{
  List<T> _list = new List<T>();
  object _locker = new object();

  public bool AddIfNotPresent (T item)
  {
    Contract.Ensures (_list.Contains (item));
    lock (_locker)
    {
      if (_list.Contains(item)) return false;
      _list.Add (item);
      return true;
    }
  }

  public void Remove (T item)
  {
    lock (_locker)
      _list.Remove (item);
  }
}

Contract.Result<T> and Contract.ValueAtReturn<T>

Random _random = new Random();
int GetOddRandomNumber()
{
  Contract.Ensures (Contract.Result<int>() % 2 == 1);
  return _random.Next (100) * 2 + 1;
}

Contract.OldValue<T>

static string Middle (string s)
{
  Contract.Requires (s != null && s.Length >= 2);
  Contract.Ensures (Contract.Result<string> ().Length <
                    Contract.OldValue (s).Length);
  s = s.Substring (1, s.Length - 2);
  return s.Trim();
}

Object Invariants

class Test
{
  int _x, _y;

  [ContractInvariantMethod]
  void ObjectInvariant()
  {
    Contract.Invariant (_x >= 0);
    Contract.Invariant (_y >= _x);
  }

  public int X { get { return _x; } set { _x = value; } }
  public void Test1() { _x = -3; }  
  void Test2()        { _x = -3; }  
} 

Contracts on Interfaces and Abstract Methods

[ContractClass (typeof (ContractForITest))]
interface ITest
{
  int Process (string s);
}

[ContractClassFor (typeof (ITest))]
sealed class ContractForITest : ITest
{
  int ITest.Process (string s)     // Must use explicit implementation.
  {
    Contract.Requires (s != null);
    return 0;                      // Dummy value to satisfy compiler.
  }
}

ContractFailed event

Contract.ContractFailed += (sender, args) =>
{
  string failureMessage = args.FailureKind + ": " + args.Message;
  // Log failureMessage with unit testing framework:
  // ...
  args.SetUnwind();
};

Static contract checking

static void Main()
{
  string message = null;
  WriteLine (message);     // Static checking tool will generate warning
}

static void WriteLine (string s)
{
  Contract.Requires (s != null);
  Console.WriteLine (s);
}
static void WriteLine (string s, bool b)
{
  Contract.Requires (s != null);
  if (b)
    WriteLine (s);    // Warning: requires unproven
}

static void WriteLine (string s)
{
  Contract.Requires (s != null);
  Console.WriteLine (s);
}

Enumerating processes:

foreach (Process p in Process.GetProcesses())
{
  Console.WriteLine (p.ProcessName);
  Console.WriteLine ("   PID:      " + p.Id);
  Console.WriteLine ("   Started:  " + p.StartTime);
  Console.WriteLine ("   Memory:   " + p.WorkingSet64);
  Console.WriteLine ("   CPU time: " + p.TotalProcessorTime);
  Console.WriteLine ("   Threads:  " + p.Threads.Count);
}

Enumerating process threads:

public void EnumerateThreads (Process p)
{
  foreach (ProcessThread pt in p.Threads)
  {
    Console.WriteLine (pt.Id);
    Console.WriteLine ("   State:    " + pt.ThreadState);
    Console.WriteLine ("   Priority: " + pt.PriorityLevel);
    Console.WriteLine ("   Started:  " + pt.StartTime);
    Console.WriteLine ("   CPU time: " + pt.TotalProcessorTime);
  }    
}

StackTrace and StackFrame:

static void Main() { A (); }
static void A()    { B (); }
static void B()    { C (); }
static void C()
{
  StackTrace s = new StackTrace (true);

  Console.WriteLine ("Total frames:   " + s.FrameCount);
  Console.WriteLine ("Current method: " + s.GetFrame(0).GetMethod().Name);
  Console.WriteLine ("Calling method: " + s.GetFrame(1).GetMethod().Name);
  Console.WriteLine ("Entry method:   " + s.GetFrame
                                       (s.FrameCount-1).GetMethod().Name);
  Console.WriteLine ("Call Stack:");
  foreach (StackFrame f in s.GetFrames())
    Console.WriteLine (
      "  File: "   + f.GetFileName() +
      "  Line: "   + f.GetFileLineNumber() +
      "  Col: "    + f.GetFileColumnNumber() +
      "  Offset: " + f.GetILOffset() +
      "  Method: " + f.GetMethod().Name);
}

Writing to the Windows Event Log:

const string SourceName = "MyCompany.WidgetServer";

if (!EventLog.SourceExists (SourceName))
  EventLog.CreateEventSource (SourceName, "Application");

EventLog.WriteEntry (SourceName,
  "Service started; using configuration file=...",
  EventLogEntryType.Information);

Reading from the Windows Event Log:

EventLog log = new EventLog ("Application");

Console.WriteLine ("Total entries: " + log.Entries.Count);

EventLogEntry last = log.Entries [log.Entries.Count - 1];
Console.WriteLine ("Index:   " + last.Index);
Console.WriteLine ("Source:  " + last.Source);
Console.WriteLine ("Type:    " + last.EntryType);
Console.WriteLine ("Time:    " + last.TimeWritten);
Console.WriteLine ("Message: " + last.Message);

Monitoring the Windows Event Log:

static void Main()
{
  EventLog log = new EventLog ("Application");
  log.EnableRaisingEvents = true;
  log.EntryWritten += DisplayEntry;
  Console.ReadLine();
}

static void DisplayEntry (object sender, EntryWrittenEventArgs e)
{
  EventLogEntry entry = e.Entry;
  Console.WriteLine (entry.Message);
}

Enumerating performance counters:

PerformanceCounterCategory[] cats =
  PerformanceCounterCategory.GetCategories();

foreach (PerformanceCounterCategory cat in cats)
{
  Console.WriteLine ("Category: " + cat.CategoryName);

  string[] instances = cat.GetInstanceNames();
  if (instances.Length == 0)
  {
    foreach (PerformanceCounter ctr in cat.GetCounters())
      Console.WriteLine ("  Counter: " + ctr.CounterName);
  }
  else   // Dump counters with instances   
  {
    foreach (string instance in instances)
    {
      Console.WriteLine ("  Instance: " + instance);
      if (cat.InstanceExists (instance))
        foreach (PerformanceCounter ctr in cat.GetCounters (instance))
          Console.WriteLine ("    Counter: " + ctr.CounterName);
    }
  }
}

Enumerating performance counters with LINQ to XML:

var x =
  new XElement ("counters",
    from PerformanceCounterCategory cat in
         PerformanceCounterCategory.GetCategories()
    where cat.CategoryName.StartsWith (".NET")
    let instances = cat.GetInstanceNames()
    select new XElement ("category",
      new XAttribute ("name", cat.CategoryName),
      instances.Length == 0
      ?
        from c in cat.GetCounters ()
        select new XElement ("counter",
          new XAttribute ("name", c.CounterName))
      :
        from i in instances
        select new XElement ("instance", new XAttribute ("name", i),
          !cat.InstanceExists (i)
          ?
            null
          :
            from c in cat.GetCounters (i)
            select new XElement ("counter",
              new XAttribute ("name", c.CounterName))
        )
    )
  );
x.Save ("counters.xml");

Reading performance counter data:

using (PerformanceCounter pc = new PerformanceCounter ("Processor",
                                                       "% Processor Time",
                                                       "_Total"))
  Console.WriteLine (pc.NextValue());


string procName = Process.GetCurrentProcess().ProcessName;

using (PerformanceCounter pc = new PerformanceCounter ("Process",
                                                       "Private Bytes",
                                                       procName))
  Console.WriteLine (pc.NextValue());

Polling performance counters:

static void Monitor (string category, string counter, string instance,
                     EventWaitHandle stopper)
{
  if (!PerformanceCounterCategory.Exists (category))
    throw new InvalidOperationException ("Category does not exist");

  if (!PerformanceCounterCategory.CounterExists (counter, category))
    throw new InvalidOperationException ("Counter does not exist");

  if (instance == null) instance = "";   // "" == no instance (not null!)
  if (instance != "" &&
      !PerformanceCounterCategory.InstanceExists (instance, category))
    throw new InvalidOperationException ("Instance does not exist");

  float lastValue = 0f;
  using (PerformanceCounter pc = new PerformanceCounter (category,
                                                      counter, instance))
    while (!stopper.WaitOne (200, false))
    {
      float value = pc.NextValue();
      if (value != lastValue)         // Only write out the value
      {                               // if it has changed.
        Console.WriteLine (value);
        lastValue = value;
      }
    }
}
static void Main()
{
  EventWaitHandle stopper = new ManualResetEvent (false);
  new Thread (delegate()
    { Monitor ("Processor", "% Processor Time", "_Total", stopper); }
  ).Start();
  new Thread (delegate()
    { Monitor ("LogicalDisk", "% Idle Time", "C:", stopper); }
  ).Start();
  Console.WriteLine ("Monitoring - press any key to quit");
  Console.ReadKey();
  stopper.Set();
}

Creating counters:

string category = "Nutshell Monitoring";

// We'll create two counters in this category:
string eatenPerMin = "Macadamias eaten so far";
string tooHard = "Macadamias deemed too hard";

if (!PerformanceCounterCategory.Exists (category))
{
  CounterCreationDataCollection cd = new CounterCreationDataCollection();

  cd.Add (new CounterCreationData (eatenPerMin,
          "Number of macadamias consumed, including shelling time",
          PerformanceCounterType.NumberOfItems32));

  cd.Add (new CounterCreationData (tooHard,
          "Number of macadamias that will not crack, despite much effort",
          PerformanceCounterType.NumberOfItems32));

  PerformanceCounterCategory.Create (category, "Test Category",
    PerformanceCounterCategoryType.SingleInstance, cd);
}

Updating a counter value:

string category = "Nutshell Monitoring";
string eatenPerMin = "Macadamias eaten so far";

using (PerformanceCounter pc = new PerformanceCounter (category,
                                                       eatenPerMin, ""))
{
  pc.ReadOnly = false;
  pc.RawValue = 1000;
  pc.Increment();
  pc.IncrementBy (10);
  Console.WriteLine (pc.NextValue());    // 1011
}

 

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C# 7.0 in a Nutshell
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