Code Listings

Chapter 16: Networking

IP Addresses:

IPAddress a1 = new IPAddress (new byte[] { 101, 102, 103, 104 });
IPAddress a2 = IPAddress.Parse ("101.102.103.104");
Console.WriteLine (a1.Equals (a2));                     // True
Console.WriteLine (a1.AddressFamily);                   // InterNetwork

IPAddress a3 = IPAddress.Parse
  ("[3EA0:FFFF:198A:E4A3:4FF2:54fA:41BC:8D31]");
Console.WriteLine (a3.AddressFamily);   // InterNetworkV6
IPAddress a = IPAddress.Parse ("101.102.103.104");
IPEndPoint ep = new IPEndPoint (a, 222);           // Port 222
Console.WriteLine (ep.ToString());                 // 101.102.103.104:222

URIs:

Uri info = new Uri ("http://www.domain.com:80/info/");
Uri page = new Uri ("http://www.domain.com/info/page.html");

Console.WriteLine (info.Host);     // www.domain.com
Console.WriteLine (info.Port);     // 80
Console.WriteLine (page.Port);     // 80  (Uri knows the default HTTP port)

Console.WriteLine (info.IsBaseOf (page));         // True
Uri relative = info.MakeRelativeUri (page);
Console.WriteLine (relative.IsAbsoluteUri);       // False
Console.WriteLine (relative.ToString());          // page.html

Simple use of WebClient:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;
wc.DownloadFile ("http://www.albahari.com/nutshell/code.aspx", "code.htm");
System.Diagnostics.Process.Start ("code.htm");

...asynchronously with progress reporting:

var wc = new WebClient();

wc.DownloadProgressChanged += (sender, args) => 
  Console.WriteLine (args.ProgressPercentage + "% complete");

Task.Delay (5000).ContinueWith (ant => wc.CancelAsync());
  
await wc.DownloadFileTaskAsync ("http://oreilly.com", "webpage.htm");

Simple use of WebRequest / WebResponse:

WebRequest req = WebRequest.Create
                ("http://www.albahari.com/nutshell/code.html");
req.Proxy = null;
using (WebResponse res = req.GetResponse())
using (Stream rs = res.GetResponseStream())
using (FileStream fs = File.Create ("code.html"))
  rs.CopyTo (fs);

Asynchronous equivalent:

WebRequest req = WebRequest.Create
                ("http://www.albahari.com/nutshell/code.html");
req.Proxy = null;
using (WebResponse res = await req.GetResponseAsync())
using (Stream rs = res.GetResponseStream())
using (FileStream fs = File.Create ("code.html"))
  await rs.CopyToAsync (fs);

HttpClient

string html = await new HttpClient().GetStringAsync ("http://linqpad.net");
var client = new HttpClient();
var task1 = client.GetStringAsync ("http://www.linqpad.net");
var task2 = client.GetStringAsync ("http://www.albahari.com");
Console.WriteLine (await task1);
Console.WriteLine (await task2);

GetAsync and response messages:

var client = new HttpClient();
// The GetAsync method also accepts a CancellationToken.
HttpResponseMessage response = await client.GetAsync ("http://...");
response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
string html = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
using (var fileStream = File.Create ("linqpad.html"))
  await response.Content.CopyToAsync (fileStream);

SendAsync and request messages

var client = new HttpClient();
var request = new HttpRequestMessage (HttpMethod.Get, "http://...");
HttpResponseMessage response = await client.SendAsync (request);
response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

Uploading data and HttpContent

var client = new HttpClient (new HttpClientHandler { UseProxy = false });
var request = new HttpRequestMessage (
  HttpMethod.Post, "http://www.albahari.com/EchoPost.aspx");
request.Content = new StringContent ("This is a test");
HttpResponseMessage response = await client.SendAsync (request);
response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
Console.WriteLine (await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync());

HttpMessageHandler

public abstract class HttpMessageHandler : IDisposable
{
  protected internal abstract Task<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync
    (HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken);

  public void Dispose();
  protected virtual void Dispose (bool disposing);
}

Unit testing and mocking

class MockHandler : HttpMessageHandler
{
  Func <HttpRequestMessage, HttpResponseMessage> _responseGenerator;
    
  public MockHandler
    (Func <HttpRequestMessage, HttpResponseMessage> responseGenerator)
  {
    _responseGenerator = responseGenerator;
  }
    
  protected override Task <HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync
    (HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
  {
    cancellationToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
    var response = _responseGenerator (request);
    response.RequestMessage = request;
    return Task.FromResult (response);
  }
}
var mocker = new MockHandler (request => 
  new HttpResponseMessage (HttpStatusCode.OK)
  {
    Content = new StringContent ("You asked for " + request.RequestUri)
  });

var client = new HttpClient (mocker);	
var response = await client.GetAsync ("http://www.linqpad.net");
string result = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
Assert.AreEqual ("You asked for http://www.linqpad.net/", result);

Chaining handlers with DelegatingHandler

class LoggingHandler : DelegatingHandler 
{
  public LoggingHandler (HttpMessageHandler nextHandler)
  {
     InnerHandler = nextHandler;
  }
    
  protected async override Task <HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync
    (HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
  {
    Console.WriteLine ("Requesting: " + request.RequestUri);
    var response = await base.SendAsync (request, cancellationToken);
    Console.WriteLine ("Got response: " + response.StatusCode);
    return response;
  }
}

Proxies:

// Create a WebProxy with the proxy's IP address and port. You can
// optionally set Credentials if the proxy needs a username/password.

WebProxy p = new WebProxy ("192.178.10.49", 808);
p.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("username", "password");
// or:
p.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("username", "password", "domain");

WebClient wc = new WebClient())
wc.Proxy = p;
  ...

// Same procedure with a WebRequest object:
WebRequest req = WebRequest.Create ("...");
req.Proxy = p;

With HttpClient:

WebProxy p = new WebProxy ("192.178.10.49", 808);
p.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("username", "password", "domain");

var handler = new HttpClientHandler { Proxy = p };
var client = new HttpClient (handler);

Authentication:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;
wc.BaseAddress = "ftp://ftp.albahari.com";

// Authenticate, then upload and download a file to the FTP server.
// The same approach also works for HTTP and HTTPS.

string username = "nutshell";
string password = "oreilly";
wc.Credentials = new NetworkCredential (username, password);

wc.DownloadFile ("guestbook.txt", "guestbook.txt");

string data = "Hello from " + Environment.UserName + "!\r\n";
File.AppendAllText ("guestbook.txt", data);

wc.UploadFile ("guestbook.txt", "guestbook.txt");

...with HttpClient:

var handler = new HttpClientHandler();
handler.Credentials = new NetworkCredential (username, password);
var client = new HttpClient (handler);

CredentialCache:

CredentialCache cache = new CredentialCache();
Uri prefix = new Uri ("http://exchange.mydomain.com");
cache.Add (prefix, "Digest",  new NetworkCredential ("joe", "passwd"));
cache.Add (prefix, "Negotiate", new NetworkCredential ("joe", "passwd"));

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Credentials = cache;
...

Exception handling with HttpClient

var client = new HttpClient();
var response = await client.GetAsync ("http://linqpad.net/foo");
HttpStatusCode responseStatus = response.StatusCode;

Exception handling with WebClient/WebRequest/WebResponse:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
try
{
  wc.Proxy = null;
  string s = wc.DownloadString ("http://www.albahari.com/notthere");
}
catch (WebException ex)
{
  if (ex.Status == WebExceptionStatus.NameResolutionFailure)
    Console.WriteLine ("Bad domain name");
  else if (ex.Status == WebExceptionStatus.ProtocolError)
  {
    HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse) ex.Response;
    Console.WriteLine (response.StatusDescription);      // "Not Found"
    if (response.StatusCode == HttpStatusCode.NotFound)
      Console.WriteLine ("Not there!");                  // "Not there!"
  }
  else throw;
}

HTTP headers:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;
wc.Headers.Add ("CustomHeader", "JustPlaying/1.0");
wc.DownloadString ("http://www.oreilly.com");

foreach (string name in wc.ResponseHeaders.Keys)
  Console.WriteLine (name + "=" + wc.ResponseHeaders [name]);

HTTP query strings:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;
wc.QueryString.Add ("q", "WebClient");     // Search for "WebClient"
wc.QueryString.Add ("hl", "fr");           // Display page in French
wc.DownloadFile ("http://www.google.com/search", "results.html");
System.Diagnostics.Process.Start ("results.html");

Uri.EscapeDataString

string search = Uri.EscapeDataString ("(WebClient OR HttpClient)");
string language = Uri.EscapeDataString ("fr");
string requestURI = "http://www.google.com/search?q=" + search +
                    "&hl=" + language;

Uploading form data with WebClient:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;

var data = new System.Collections.Specialized.NameValueCollection();
data.Add ("Name", "Joe Albahari");
data.Add ("Company", "O'Reilly");

byte[] result = wc.UploadValues ("http://www.albahari.com/EchoPost.aspx",
                                 "POST", data);

Console.WriteLine (Encoding.UTF8.GetString (result));

Uploading form data with WebRequest:

var req = WebRequest.Create ("http://www.albahari.com/EchoPost.aspx");
req.Proxy = null;
req.Method = "POST";
req.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";

string reqString = "Name=Joe+Albahari&Company=O'Reilly";
byte[] reqData = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (reqString);
req.ContentLength = reqData.Length;

using (Stream reqStream = req.GetRequestStream())
  reqStream.Write (reqData, 0, reqData.Length);

using (WebResponse res = req.GetResponse())
using (Stream resSteam = res.GetResponseStream())
using (StreamReader sr = new StreamReader (resSteam))
  Console.WriteLine (sr.ReadToEnd());

Uploading Form Data with HttpClient

string uri = "http://www.albahari.com/EchoPost.aspx";
var client = new HttpClient();
var dict = new Dictionary<string,string> 
{
    { "Name", "Joe Albahari" },
    { "Company", "O'Reilly" }
};
var values = new FormUrlEncodedContent (dict);
var response = await client.PostAsync (uri, values);
response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
Console.WriteLine (await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync());

Cookies:

CookieContainer cc = new CookieContainer();

var request = (HttpWebRequest) WebRequest.Create ("http://www.google.com");
request.Proxy = null;
request.CookieContainer = cc;
using (var response = (HttpWebResponse) request.GetResponse())
{
  foreach (Cookie c in response.Cookies)
  {
    Console.WriteLine (" Name:   " + c.Name);
    Console.WriteLine (" Value:  " + c.Value);
    Console.WriteLine (" Path:   " + c.Path);
    Console.WriteLine (" Domain: " + c.Domain);
  }
  // Read response stream...
}

...with HttpClient

var cc = new CookieContainer();
var handler = new HttpClientHandler();
handler.CookieContainer = cc;
var client = new HttpClient (handler);

Forms authentication:

string loginUri = "http://www.somesite.com/login";
string username = "username";   // (Your username)
string password = "password";   // (Your password)
string reqString = "username=" + username + "&password=" + password;
byte[] requestData = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (reqString);

CookieContainer cc = new CookieContainer();
var request = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create (loginUri);
request.Proxy = null;
request.CookieContainer = cc;
request.Method = "POST";

request.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
request.ContentLength = requestData.Length;

using (Stream s = request.GetRequestStream())
  s.Write (requestData, 0, requestData.Length);

using (var response = (HttpWebResponse) request.GetResponse())
  foreach (Cookie c in response.Cookies)
    Console.WriteLine (c.Name + " = " + c.Value);

// We're now logged in. As long as we assign cc to subsequent WebRequest
// objects, we’ll be treated as an authenticated user.

Forms authentication with HttpClient

string loginUri = "http://www.somesite.com/login";
string username = "username";
string password = "password";

CookieContainer cc = new CookieContainer();
var handler = new HttpClientHandler { CookieContainer = cc };

var request = new HttpRequestMessage (HttpMethod.Post, loginUri);
request.Content = new FormUrlEncodedContent (new Dictionary<string,string>
{
  { "username", username },
  { "password", password }
});

var client = new HttpClient (handler);
var response = await client.SendAsync (request);
response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

SSL:

using System.Net;
using System.Net.Security;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
…
static void ConfigureSSL()
{
  ServicePointManager.ServerCertificateValidationCallback = CertChecker;
}

static bool CertChecker (object sender, X509Certificate certificate,
                         X509Chain chain, SslPolicyErrors errors)
{
  // Return true if you're happy with the certificate
  …
}

Writing a simple HTTP server:

static void Main()
{
  ListenAsync();                           // Start server
  WebClient wc = new WebClient();          // Make a client request.
  Console.WriteLine (wc.DownloadString
    ("http://localhost:51111/MyApp/Request.txt"));
}

async static void ListenAsync()
{
  HttpListener listener = new HttpListener();
  listener.Prefixes.Add ("http://localhost:51111/MyApp/");  // Listen on
  listener.Start();                                         // port 51111.

  // Await a client request:
  HttpListenerContext context = await listener.GetContextAsync();

  // Respond to the request:
  string msg = "You asked for: " + context.Request.RawUrl;
  context.Response.ContentLength64 = Encoding.UTF8.GetByteCount (msg);
  context.Response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.OK;

  using (Stream s = context.Response.OutputStream)
  using (StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter (s))
    await writer.WriteAsync (msg);

  listener.Stop();
}

Web Page Server

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

class WebServer
{
  HttpListener _listener;
  string _baseFolder;      // Your web page folder.

  public WebServer (string uriPrefix, string baseFolder)
  {
    _listener = new HttpListener();
    _listener.Prefixes.Add (uriPrefix);
    _baseFolder = baseFolder;
  }

  public async void Start()
  {
    _listener.Start();
    while (true)
      try 
      {
        var context = await _listener.GetContextAsync();
        Task.Run (() => ProcessRequestAsync (context));
      }
      catch (HttpListenerException)     { break; }   // Listener stopped.
      catch (InvalidOperationException) { break; }   // Listener stopped.
  }

  public void Stop() { _listener.Stop(); }

  async void ProcessRequestAsync (HttpListenerContext context)
  {
    try
    {
      string filename = Path.GetFileName (context.Request.RawUrl);
      string path = Path.Combine (_baseFolder, filename);
      byte[] msg;
      if (!File.Exists (path))
      {
        Console.WriteLine ("Resource not found: " + path);
        context.Response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.NotFound;
        msg = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes ("Sorry, that page does not exist");
      }
      else
      {
        context.Response.StatusCode = (int) HttpStatusCode.OK;
        msg = File.ReadAllBytes (path);
      }
      context.Response.ContentLength64 = msg.Length;
      using (Stream s = context.Response.OutputStream)
        await s.WriteAsync (msg, 0, msg.Length);
    }
    catch (Exception ex) { Console.WriteLine ("Request error: " + ex); }
  }
}
static void Main()
{
  // Listen on port 51111, serving files in d:\webroot:
  var server = new WebServer ("http://localhost:51111/", @"d:\webroot");
  try
  {
    server.Start();
    Console.WriteLine ("Server running... press Enter to stop");
    Console.ReadLine();
  }
  finally { server.Stop(); }
}

Using FTP:

WebClient wc = new WebClient();
wc.Proxy = null;
wc.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("nutshell", "oreilly");
wc.BaseAddress = "ftp://ftp.albahari.com";
wc.UploadString ("tempfile.txt", "hello!");
Console.WriteLine (wc.DownloadString ("tempfile.txt"));   // hello!

FTP ListDirectory:

var req = (FtpWebRequest) WebRequest.Create ("ftp://ftp.albahari.com");
req.Proxy = null;
req.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("nutshell", "oreilly");
req.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.ListDirectory;

using (WebResponse resp = req.GetResponse())
using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader (resp.GetResponseStream()))
  Console.WriteLine (reader.ReadToEnd());

FTP GetFileSize:

var req = (FtpWebRequest) WebRequest.Create (
                          "ftp://ftp.albahari.com/tempfile.txt");
req.Proxy = null;
req.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("nutshell", "oreilly");

req.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.GetFileSize;

using (WebResponse resp = req.GetResponse())
  Console.WriteLine (resp.ContentLength);            // 6

FTP LastModified:

req.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.GetDateTimestamp;

using (var resp = (FtpWebResponse) req.GetResponse() )
  Console.WriteLine (resp.LastModified);

FTP Rename:

var req = (FtpWebRequest) WebRequest.Create (
                          "ftp://ftp.albahari.com/tempfile.txt");
req.Proxy = null;
req.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("nutshell", "oreilly");

req.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.Rename;
req.RenameTo = "deleteme.txt";

req.GetResponse().Close();        // Perform the rename

FTP DeleteFile:

var req = (FtpWebRequest) WebRequest.Create (
                          "ftp://ftp.albahari.com/deleteme.txt");
req.Proxy = null;
req.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("nutshell", "oreilly");

req.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.DeleteFile;

req.GetResponse().Close();        // Perform the deletion

Using DNS

foreach (IPAddress a in Dns.GetHostAddresses ("albahari.com"))
  Console.WriteLine (a.ToString());     // 205.210.42.167
IPHostEntry entry = Dns.GetHostEntry ("205.210.42.167");
Console.WriteLine (entry.HostName);                    // albahari.com
IPAddress address = new IPAddress (new byte[] { 205, 210, 42, 167 });
IPHostEntry entry = Dns.GetHostEntry (address);
Console.WriteLine (entry.HostName);                    // albahari.com

Async:

foreach (IPAddress a in await Dns.GetHostAddressesAsync ("albahari.com"))
  Console.WriteLine (a.ToString());

Sending Mail with SmtpClient:

SmtpClient client = new SmtpClient();
client.Host = "mail.myisp.net";
client.Send ("from@adomain.com", "to@adomain.com", "subject", "body");

Mail attachments:

SmtpClient client = new SmtpClient();
client.Host = "mail.myisp.net";
MailMessage mm = new MailMessage();

mm.Sender = new MailAddress ("kay@domain.com", "Kay");
mm.From   = new MailAddress ("kay@domain.com", "Kay");
mm.To.Add  (new MailAddress ("bob@domain.com", "Bob"));
mm.CC.Add  (new MailAddress ("dan@domain.com", "Dan"));
mm.Subject = "Hello!";
mm.Body = "Hi there. Here's the photo!";
mm.IsBodyHtml = false;
mm.Priority = MailPriority.High;

Attachment a = new Attachment ("photo.jpg",
                               System.Net.Mime.MediaTypeNames.Image.Jpeg);
mm.Attachments.Add (a);

client.Send (mm);

TCP ping-pong:

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;
using System.Net.Sockets;
using System.Threading;

class TcpDemo
{
  static void Main()
  {
    new Thread (Server).Start();       // Run server method concurrently.
    Thread.Sleep (500);                // Give server time to start.
    Client();
  }

  static void Client()
  {
    using (TcpClient client = new TcpClient ("localhost", 51111))
    using (NetworkStream n = client.GetStream())
    {
      BinaryWriter w = new BinaryWriter (n);
      w.Write ("Hello");
      w.Flush();
      Console.WriteLine (new BinaryReader (n).ReadString());
    }
  }

  static void Server()     // Handles a single client request, then exits.
  {
    TcpListener listener = new TcpListener (IPAddress.Any, 51111);
    listener.Start();
    using (TcpClient c = listener.AcceptTcpClient())
    using (NetworkStream n = c.GetStream())
    {
      string msg = new BinaryReader (n).ReadString();
      BinaryWriter w = new BinaryWriter (n);
      w.Write (msg + " right back!");
      w.Flush();                      // Must call Flush because we're not
    }                                 // disposing the writer.
    listener.Stop();
  }
}

Asynchronous TCP

async void RunServerAsync ()
{
  var listener = new TcpListener (IPAddress.Any, 51111);
  listener.Start ();
  try
  {
    while (true)
      Accept (await listener.AcceptTcpClientAsync ());
  }
  finally { listener.Stop(); }
}

async Task Accept (TcpClient client)
{
  await Task.Yield ();
  try
  {
    using (client)
    using (NetworkStream n = client.GetStream ())
    {
      byte[] data = new byte [5000];
      
      int bytesRead = 0; int chunkSize = 1;
      while (bytesRead < data.Length && chunkSize > 0)
        bytesRead += chunkSize =
          await n.ReadAsync (data, bytesRead, data.Length - bytesRead);
      
      Array.Reverse (data);   // Reverse the byte sequence
      await n.WriteAsync (data, 0, data.Length);
    }
  }
  catch (Exception ex) { Console.WriteLine (ex.Message); }
}

Receiving POP3 mail:

static void Receive()
{
  using (TcpClient client = new TcpClient ("mail.isp.com ", 110))
  using (NetworkStream n = client.GetStream())
  {
    ReadLine (n);                             // Read the welcome message.
    SendCommand (n, "USER username");
    SendCommand (n, "PASS password");
    SendCommand (n, "LIST");                  // Retrieve message IDs
    List<int> messageIDs = new List<int>();
    while (true)
    {
      string line = ReadLine (n);             // e.g.  "1 1876"
      if (line == ".") break;
      messageIDs.Add (int.Parse (line.Split (' ')[0] ));   // Message ID
    }

    foreach (int id in messageIDs)         // Retrieve each message.
    {
      SendCommand (n, "RETR " + id);
      string randomFile = Guid.NewGuid().ToString() + ".eml";
      using (StreamWriter writer = File.CreateText (randomFile))
        while (true)
        {
          string line = ReadLine (n);      // Read next line of message.
          if (line == ".") break;          // Single dot = end of message.
          if (line == "..") line = ".";    // "Escape out" double dot.
          writer.WriteLine (line);         // Write to output file.
        }
      SendCommand (n, "DELE " + id);       // Delete message off server.
    }
    SendCommand (n, "QUIT");
  }
}

static string ReadLine (Stream s)
{
  List<byte> lineBuffer = new List<byte>();
  while (true)
  {
    int b = s.ReadByte();
    if (b == 10 || b < 0) break;
    if (b != 13) lineBuffer.Add ((byte)b);
  }
  return Encoding.UTF8.GetString (lineBuffer.ToArray());
}

static void SendCommand (Stream stream, string line)
{
  byte[] data = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (line + "\r\n");
  stream.Write (data, 0, data.Length);
  string response = ReadLine (stream);
  if (!response.StartsWith ("+OK"))
    throw new Exception ("POP Error: " + response);
}

TCP in Windows Runtime

async void Server()
{
  var listener = new StreamSocketListener();
  listener.ConnectionReceived += async (sender, args) =>
  {
    using (StreamSocket socket = args.Socket)
    {
      var reader = new DataReader (socket.InputStream);
      await reader.LoadAsync (4);
      uint length = reader.ReadUInt32();
      await reader.LoadAsync (length);
      Debug.WriteLine (reader.ReadString (length));
    }
    listener.Dispose();   // Close listener after one message.
  };
  await listener.BindServiceNameAsync ("51111");
}
async void Client()
{
  using (var socket = new StreamSocket())
  {
    await socket.ConnectAsync (new HostName ("localhost"), "51111",
                              SocketProtectionLevel.PlainSocket);
    var writer = new DataWriter (socket.OutputStream);
    string message = "Hello!";
    uint length = (uint) Encoding.UTF8.GetByteCount (message);
    writer.WriteUInt32 (length);
    writer.WriteString (message);
    await writer.StoreAsync();
  }
}

 

© 2007-2017, Joe Albahari, Ben Albahari and O'Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved

C# 7.0 in a Nutshell
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